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Collins et al. – Alternative anodes for low temperature lithium-ion batteries – J. Mater. Chem. A, 2021, 9, 14172-14213.

Gearoid A. Collins, Hugh Geaney and Kevin M. Ryan
Department of Chemical Sciences and Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. E-mail: hugh.geaney@ul.iekevin.m.ryan@ul.ieReceived 2nd February 2021 , Accepted 11th May 2021
First published on 18th May 2021
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Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have become critical components in the manufacture of electric vehicles (EVs) as they offer the best all-round performance compared to competing battery chemistries. However, LIB performance at low temperature (LT) extremes of EV operation (typically −40 to 0 °C) suffers from a reduced output and diminished cycle life. LT cycling increases cell impedance, diminishing Li ion diffusion through the cell, exacerbating electrode polarisation, and hindering interfacial Li+ desolvation. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of (i) the factors that influence LT Li-ion performance, (ii) outline the shortcomings of the current state-of-the-art and (iii) discuss recent findings in the field, focusing on alternative anode materials with particular emphasis on high-capacity, fast charging alternatives to the archetypal carbon (graphite) anode. Different approaches to improve LT LIB performance are outlined in an in-depth analysis of recent improvements from the anode perspective. These include electrolyte-driven enhancements, the resurgence of Li metal batteries, the impact of conductive coatings, elemental doping and nanocomposite formation, substitution of intercalating anodes with high-capacity Li alloying and Li conversion materials, and fast redox pseudocapacitance.